Purpose: To evaluate the association between chronological age and mineralization of third molar teeth in a sample from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods: A sample of 173 digitized panoramic radiographs were selected from a total of 2,442 panoramic radiographs obtained over a period of 6 months at a private Dental Radiology service, in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The patients were aged from 5.5 to 21 years, and a calibrated examiner made the evaluation using the classification proposed by Demirjian. Data were analyzed by using an adjusted multiple linear regression model considering age as a response variable. The level of significance adopted was 0.05. Results: Gender and stage of calcification were significantly correlated associated with age. There was no effect of gender on mineralization of the teeth. Between the two consecutive stages of calcification of third molar teeth, the mean increase in age varied by 16 months. Conclusion: The results suggest that the development of the third molar teeth is similar in both sexes. Calcification of third molars may be an auxiliary tool in the study of chronological age. Article published in: Rev. odonto ciênc. 2010;25(4):391-394.